Eyewash is an emergency rescue facility used in toxic and hazardous working environments. When on-site operators’ eyes or bodies come in contact with toxic, harmful, and corrosive chemicals, these devices can be used to flush or rinse the eyes and body in an emergency, mainly to avoid further harm to the human body caused by the chemicals, but these devices are only Preliminary treatment of the eyes and body is not a substitute for medical treatment. If the condition is serious, further medical treatment must be carried out as soon as possible.
One: the choice of eyewash
When choosing an eyewash or shower equipment, in addition to considering the environmental factors on site, you must also consider the standards and technical requirements that the eyewash or shower equipment itself should meet, as well as the after-sales service of the equipment and the safety performance of the equipment.
Due to the special requirements of eyewash and shower equipment, there will be some corresponding regulations on the materials of the equipment. At present, in the domestic market, the eyewash heads and shower heads of imported eyewashes and showering equipment generally use ABS materials, and other parts are stainless steel or copper pipe surface dipped ABS materials: domestic eyewashes and showering equipment are generally corrosion-resistant Excellent performance, not suitable for rust, non-toxic stainless steel material, at the same time sturdy and durable. In cold weather in the north, you can consider installing an antifreeze device, or other requirements:
2: Installation of eyewash and shower equipment
1. Installation requirements
According to the ANSI-Z358-1-2014 American eyewash standard, the installation of eyewash and shower equipment needs to be carried out in accordance with the relevant instructions.
1.1 The eyewash and shower equipment should be installed near the source of danger. It is best to quickly reach the area of the eyewash and shower equipment within 10 seconds. At the same time, they should be installed on the same level as possible, preferably in a straight line. Arrive, avoid cross-layer ambulance.
1.2 There are eye-catching signs around the eyewash and shower equipment. The logo should be clearly expressed in both Chinese and English and graphically. It tells the operators at the production site clearly the location and purpose of the eyewash and shower equipment.
1.3 When the eyewash and shower equipment are in normal operation, each component should meet the requirements of the ANSI? Z358-1-2014 standard, and each nozzle can be used independently at the same time. In areas in the north that may freeze in winter, it is necessary to add antifreeze devices or install antifreeze protection facilities next to the equipment.
After the installation of each component of the eyewash and shower equipment is completed, the following requirements should also be met at the same time:
A. When the eyewash and shower equipment are correctly connected to the water source and all valve switches are closed, there should be no water leakage in the connected pipeline.
B. When the operating switches of the eyewash and shower equipment are fully opened, all valves must be kept open, except for human factors
C. When all the switches of the equipment are in full working condition, the entire equipment should meet the requirements of the ANSI-Z358-1-2014 standard.
2. Requirements for the installation location of eyewash and shower equipment
2.1. Eyewash and shower equipment should be installed near the source of danger. It is best to quickly reach the area of the eyewash and shower equipment within 10 seconds. At the same time, they should be installed on the same level as possible. It is best to be able to reach in a straight line to avoid Cross-level ambulance.
2.2. Under special circumstances, eyewash and shower equipment should meet special requirements. For example, in environments that may be directly exposed to strong acids or alkalis, or other toxic and harmful substances that have strong corrosive properties or are easily absorbed by the skin, eyewash and shower equipment must be installed in the place closest to the source of danger.
2.3. In laboratories that may be exposed to the above-mentioned toxic and harmful chemicals, eyewash and shower equipment are generally installed in the internal passages of the laboratory. But sometimes the working position is far away from the eyewash and shower equipment, which may delay the rescue time. In this case, it is recommended to install eyewash and shower hoses next to the pool in the laboratory. This kind of equipment is more convenient and practical. When the eyes, face and other parts are accidentally splashed with dangerous chemicals, this device can be used to rinse as soon as possible, providing timely protection.
Three: the water outlet speed of the eyewash and shower equipment
The water outlet speed of the eyewash and shower equipment should be as stable and balanced as possible. The water flow from the nozzle should be soft, showing a water mist state to prevent the water flow from being too large. In this way, the flushing area can be enlarged, and the uncomfortable feeling of the eyes caused by the rapid flow of water can be avoided.
The water flow of the shower is generally determined by the specific emergency equipment. According to the ANSI? Z358-1-2014 standard, the water flow speed needs to pass the 15min test.
Specific requirements are as follows:
Separate emergency shower, shower nozzle needs to ensure that the water flow speed is at least 75.7L/min (20 gallons min), and the system can continuously supply water for more than 15 minutes
For a separate emergency eyewash, the water flow speed is relatively low, at least not less than 1.5L/min (0.4 gallon min), and the system can continuously supply water for more than 15 minutes.
For the eyewash system of the compound eyewash, the water flow rate is at least 11.4L/min (3.0 gallons min), and the system can continuously supply water for more than 15 minutes.
The requirement for water pressure must not be lower than 206.84kPa, which can basically be met by current domestic water sources.
There should be a dust cap on each nozzle of the eyewash. When using the eyewash, the water flow will automatically open the dust cover. The dust cover is connected to the eyewash by a stainless steel wire chain. When the eyewash is not in use, the dust cap should be covered on the nozzle to ensure that the nozzle of the eyewash will not be blocked by dust or other substances. The valve of the eyewash should be easy to operate, and the opening time should not exceed 1s. The valve should have anti-corrosion function. Because the nozzle of the eyewash is equipped with a filter, it can prevent the sundries in the water from causing damage to the human eyes.
Four: the temperature of the outlet water
According to the ANSI? Z358-1-2014 standard, the temperature of the outlet water of the eyewash and shower equipment should be lukewarm, so that the human body feels comfortable. However, if the temperature of the hot water will promote or accelerate the chemical reaction of some substances in the water with the human body, medical experts’ opinions should be consulted to ensure the most suitable temperature, and the temperature of the water should not change too much, or cause greater damage to the human body. harm.
To ensure that the temperature of the outlet water from the eyewash and shower equipment is constant, the manufacture and installation of the equipment increase the difficulty. The simplest method is to divide the water supply into cold water and hot water systems, and install a composite valve to make the composite water temperature meet the normal needs. But when using this system, it is also very troublesome. Once an emergency occurs, there is no more time to adjust the water temperature.
Five: Wastewater treatment
Although there is no mention of wastewater treatment regulations in the ANSI-Z358-1-2014 standard, designers and users must consider this issue, especially not to cause secondary pollution or cause other injuries.
Generally speaking, eyewash and shower equipment are designed to be connected to the sewer. However, sometimes the flushing wastewater contains some chemicals, which may enter the public system. This requires the wastewater to be acid-base neutralized before it enters the public system to meet national standards before it can be discharged.
Six: Maintenance, overhaul and training
It is recommended that the eyewash and shower equipment be activated at least once a week to see if they can operate normally. For movable eyewashes (such as portable eyewashes, portable pressure eyewashes), it is necessary to arrange for someone to check whether the water reserve is sufficient every day.
At the same time, it is recommended that the reserved water source be replaced once a day to ensure water quality.
The eyewash and shower equipment need to be inspected once a year to check whether the equipment is in good condition.
For the maintenance and repair of eyewash and shower equipment, the manufacturer should provide corresponding technical training. For users who have been exposed to hazardous work environments for a long time, more technical guidance and correct use of eyewash and shower equipment should be provided.
The above aspects, according to the ANSI Z358-1-2014 standard, have made a detailed description of the eyewash and shower equipment. To make good use of eyewash and shower equipment, it is necessary to conduct professional technical training for employees and establish an emergency response mechanism.