2 CHEMICAL EYE INJURIES
3 CAUSE : Alkalis (Bases) –A–Alkalis (bases) are chemicals with a high pH. The higher the number (8 or above) the stronger the base. –E–Examples at home: bleach, fertilizers, cleaning products (ammonia), drain cleaners (lye), oven cleaners, and plaster or cement (lime). –T–These are MOST dangerous to the human eye! –E–Examples at the lab: ammonia, methyl amine (methynol), photo chemicals (barium hydroxide), potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide. –A–Ask your chemistry teacher which substances in your school’s lab are alkali.
4 The cornea receives its nourishment from tears and the aqueous humor, which fills the chambers behind the structure. The outer epithelial layer of the cornea is packed with thousands of small nerve endings, making the cornea extremely sensitive to pain when rubbed or scratched. Alkalis can penetrate the surface of an eye, entering the stroma and endothelium, the last layers of the cornea which is the clear layer that makes up the surface of your eye.
5 CAUSE : Acid Injuries Acids are chemicals with a low pH (below 7, lower=stronger) Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid may be in rust removers, toilet bowl cleaners, water spot stain removers, tar removers, mag wheel cleaners, metal cleaners, and glass etching use. –Other than Hydrofluoric acid, ACID burns tend to result in less severe injury to the human eye than ALKALI burns. –Acids will usually bind with tissue proteins causing coagulation, stopping further penetration. –Examples: car batteries, vinegar, nail polish remover.
6 Besides chemical BURNS to the eye, Chemicals have also been known to… EXPLODE. Chemicals and GLASS can spray in all directions. NEVER use chemicals without eye protection! NOT your Chemical Romance….
7 Read about actual lab accidents… #1. Bad News: A laboratory worker was pouring chloroform though a gel column inside a fume hood. Due to incorrect equipment configuration, pressure built up in the column and caused the glassware at the top of the column to break, spraying chloroform out of the hood, to the worker’s face, eyes and clothing. The laboratory worker was wearing simple safety glasses, rather than chemical splash goggles. The chloroform seeped through the opening at the top of the glasses and burned both eyes.
8 #2. More Bad News: A 15½ year old boy was granted access to the school chemistry laboratory for the specific purpose of assembling apparatus for an experiment to be conducted during chemistry class, later that day. While there, he made an explosive compound according to his own recipe (i.e., not in the school’s laboratory manual). The explosion blinded his left eye, mangled his left hand so that it required amputation, and perforated his stomach with glass. #3. Conclusion? Wear protection in the lab – the RIGHT protection! Now, read on…. Lab Accidents, continued…
9 Good News and Bad News Good News: Students in a high school chemistry class were studying the difference between mixtures and compounds. … The sample was heated to bring about the desired reaction. Bad News: Unfortunately some of the students were much faster than others and the two parts of the experiment were occurring at the same time. One student placed her solution of sulfur and carbon disulfide in the chemical crock and put the cover back on. Shortly thereafter a second student placed a hot test tube in the crock. More Bad News: The resulting explosion sent broken glass flying in all directions!
10 The Rest of the Story Really Good News: Fortunately all the students were wearing goggles and (that’s right!) no one was hurt. Conclusion#1: High school chemistry classes ROCK! Conclusion #2: Of course, wear the right protection EVERY TIME.
11 Other CAUSES of Chemical Injury Irritants: –Chemicals with a neutral pH of 7. –Generally cause discomfort (that’s still pain) rather than “damage.” –Most detergents are irritants. Chemical Fumes: — Even exposure to chemical FUMES can burn can burn the eye! — Proper ventilation is required when dealing with chemicals
12 CHEMICAL Injury Complications — Chemicals can damage the epithelium (the outermost layer of the cornea) which can be irreversible and require surgery. — Chemicals can perforate the cornea. <– Chemicals can cause corneal scarring resulting in reduced visual acuity (sharpness) that can never be corrected by glasses!
13 Avoiding CHEMICAL Injuries Prevention –Cover Goggles (also called “Splash” Goggles) are the most common protectors. –Eye/Face Shields enhance safety. Protection — Splash Goggles form a protective seal around the eyes which prevents objects or liquids from entering. — Designed and tested to resist impact. — Can be worn over prescription glasses.
14 Listen to your intuition…wear goggles!
15 Eye Injury Simulation I Wear your Goggles! How do the “egg” eyes hold up to a strong acid? How do they hold up to a strong alkali?
16 CHEMICAL INJURIES First Aid Call the Poison Control Center 1-800-222-1222. Go to the nearest water source and flush the eye for 15 minutes. If an official eye-wash station is not available, a water fountain is often around. A faucet or jug of clean water would be OK. Just do it. Do NOT RUB the eye! Rubbing may cause more injury. After flushing out the eye, you may still need to go to the Emergency Room. Remember to take the bottle of the chemical (or a pamphlet that came with it) as this will help the doctor properly treat your eye.
17 Chemical Injuries
18 PreventingEyeInjuries ChemicalImpactBlunt ImpactPenetrationHeat Splash (Cover) Goggles and/or Face Shield Safety SpecsSports GlassesSpec FramesSafety Specs WeldingSunLaserTanning BedOptical Radiation Face Shield100% UV SunglassesSpecial Purpose
19 IMPACT INJURIES
20 CAUSES of Impact Injuries BLUNT Impact eye injuries occur when objects larger than the eye socket strike the eye. A blunt impact injury forces the eye back into its socket causing damage to the surface and inner structures of the eye.
21 CAUSES of Impact Injuries IMPACT Penetration eye injuries occur when objects smaller than the eye socket strike the eye. The severity of impact penetration eye injuries depends on the object’s mass, speed, size, hardness, sharpness, location of the impact, and predisposition of the individual to eye injury.
22 Gun Injury Two boys were hit in the eye with a paintball resulting in the lenses being knocked out of place, blood in the eye, and damage to the drainage structures where the cornea and iris join. Cataract extraction was required in both cases. One boy also had optic nerve damage and a ruptured choroid layer, the middle layer that contains the blood vessels. This kind of injury usually leads to loss of vision and at times loss of the eye. Paintball guns can cause devastating eye injuries. Wearing protective eye and face gear during this game is a MUST! The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends anti-fog face mask with an eye shield be worn by paintball players.
23 PROTECTION and PREVENTION Safety spectacles have lenses made out of high impact plastic and protect from flying fragments, objects, large chips and particles, even simple branches and twigs from doing yard work. Sports glasses have frames made out of high impact plastic or polycarbonate and rubber padding to protect the nose and temple area, may be prescription. Spectacle frames can be made out of metal or plastic.
24 Steve Yzerman suffered a serious eye injury when hit by a puck in the 2004 playoffs. The Red Wings captain used to be opposed to wearing a visor…but changed his mind. NOW he DOES.
25 Impact COMPLICATIONS Most blunt impact eye injuries are mild but can lead to more serious injuries such as retinal detachment, cataract and blow- out fracture (orbital bones fracture allowing the eye to fall out). Impact penetration eye injuries can lacerate (rip) surface structures of the eye such as the lid, conjunctiva, sclera, cornea and lens. Long term and permanent vision loss from corneal scarring, lens displacement, internal bleeding, torn or prolapsed (displaced or fallen) iris and rupture can occur when the eye suffers impact injury.
26 Dust Dangers Unprotected eyes are at risk from dust: sand, dirt, wood shavings, concrete mix, powder, or dust from sanding, buffing, grinding, stamping, sawing, shaping, turning, milling or drilling of any solid material (wood, metal, concrete, etc). The smallest specks can scratch delicate tissue! If your eye is scratched even a tiny amount, you may have a LOT of pain….and even a tiny scratch leaves your eyes vulnerable to infections that can cause permanent damage…even blindness. Always choose protective goggles that hug your face if you are going to be exposed to dust & debris.
27 Dust or Dirt in Your Eye? IF you take care of it quickly, you can reduce damage: so…NEVER RUB! 1. Wash your hands really well first. 2. Rinse your eyes with clean water. 3. Check your eyes in the mirror, to make sure you got everything.* 4. Repeat as needed. 5.*Check with your eye care professional to be sure.
28 Eye Injury Simulation II Wear your Goggles or Safety Specs! How do your “egg” eyes hold up to blunt and penetration impact? How do your “flubber” eyes hold up to blunt and penetration impact?
29 FIRST AID: Impact Injuries BLUNT Impact: Immediately apply ice packs to a blunt eye injury to reduce swelling and ease the pain and swelling of a black eye. Lacerations (rips) to any area surrounding the eye or a part of the eye need immediate medical attention! PENETRATION Impact: Shield the eye (cover with a paper cup) but do NOT apply ice or ANY pressure to an eye that has been punctured! Do NOT attempt to REMOVE a foreign body from the eye: you could make it worse! Get immediate medical attention!
30 More Impact Injury FIRST AID Do NOT RUB the eye! Rubbing may cause MORE damage! Do NOT FLUSH the eye or add medication in these cases. Immediately go to the nearest Emergency Room! The ER staff can properly assess an impact eye injury. Don’t wait!
31 Blunt Impact Injury
32 Sports? Make sure your coaches have the right tools to keep your team’s eyes safe. Ask them if they’ve been to www.playhardgear.com. www.playhardgear.com For more, click here: “Play Hard. Don’t Blink.” “Play Hard. Don’t Blink.” Always Wear Protective Eyewear.
33 Penetration Impact Injury
34 PreventingEyeInjuries ChemicalImpactBlunt ImpactPenetrationHeat Cover GogglesSafety SpecsSports GlassesSpec FramesSafety Specs WeldingSunLaserTanning BedOptical Radiation Face Shield100% UV SunglassesSpecial Purpose