3 GB/T 38144.1-2019 Key Content Analysis
3.1 Product Classification
There are many types of emergency shower and eyewash equipment in domestic and foreign markets, such as: vertical eyewash, wall-mounted eyewash, desktop eyewash, compound eyewash, high-performance anti-corrosion eyewash, shower, electric heat tracing eyewash antifreeze eyewash, portable eyewash, electric heating eyewash, etc.
In the process of standard formulation, on the basis of fully investigating and analyzing the use environment of emergency shower and eyewash equipment and the natural conditions with large temperature difference between north and south of my country, after several discussions, revisions, opinion collection and seminars on product classification scheme and selection content , and finally determined the product classification in the most concise and clear way in GB/T 38144.1-2019, and divided emergency spray and eyewash equipment into 4 categories:
(1) Emergency shower: a device for showering the whole body in an emergency.
(2) Eyewash: A device used to rinse the eyes.
(3) Eye/Face Wash: A device used to wash eyes and face at the same time.
(4) Composite device: a device composed of emergency shower, eyewash or eyewash/facewash.
In addition to the above four types of products, GB/T 38144.1-2019 also specifies two types of supplementary devices, including:
(1) Personal Irrigation Device: An independent supplementary device for emergency eye and body flushing. The purpose of the personal flushing device is to achieve immediate first aid for the user, the most important flushing solution cannot harm the user, and otherwise does not follow the technical requirements of eyewash or self-contained eyewash.
(2) Spray hose: A supplementary device for washing any part of the body consisting of a flexible hose connected to the irrigation fluid supply. The most important thing about the shower hose is that it does not cause harm to the user. The difference from the personal flushing device is that if the spray hose meets the requirements of an eyewash or eyewash/facewash, it can be regarded as an eyewash. Or eye/face wash.
3.2 specifies the technical requirements for various products
The technical index requirements in GB/T 38144.1-2019 mainly involve the flushing fluid flow of various products, the height of the spray nozzle, the distance from the obstacle, the spray range, the continuous water spray time, the valve start time, etc.
In terms of flushing fluid flow, emergency sprinklers should provide flushing fluid at a flow rate of at least 76 L/min; eyewash should provide flushing fluid at a flow rate of at least 1.5 L/min; eyewash/face wash should provide flushing fluid at a flow rate of at least 11.4 L/min The flow provides flushing fluid.
In terms of the spray height of the sprinkler, calculated from the plane on which the user stands, the height of the emergency sprinkler should be between 2080 mm and 2440 mm; the height of the eyewash, eyewash/face wash should be 838 mm. to 1143mm.
In terms of distance from obstacles, the minimum distance from the center of the spray range of the emergency sprinkler to any obstacle should be 410 mm; the nozzle of the eyewash, eyewash/facewash should be at least 153 mm from the wall or the nearest obstacle.
In terms of the spraying range, the minimum diameter of the spraying range of the emergency shower should be 510 mm (at a distance of 1520 mm from the user’s standing plane); the eyewash, eyewash/facewash should be able to supply both eyes with flushing liquid, flushing liquid It should be included in the area line between the inside and the outside of the standard ruler located less than 200 mm above the eyewash nozzle, the minimum length of the standard ruler is 100 mm, and there are two sets of parallel lines with equal distances symmetrically distributed by the center, the internal position line Should be 32 mm bisected and the outer position line should be 82.5 mm bisected.
In terms of continuous water spraying time and valve activation time, the requirements for emergency showers, eyewashes, and eyewashes/facewashes are the same, namely: keep continuous flushing for at least 15 minutes, and the valve is fully opened within 1s.
In addition, eyewash, eye/facewash also put forward requirements for self-contained devices. Self-contained equipment is a form that does not need to be connected to a water source, and can contain flushing liquid by itself, and can be used independently. Its technical index requirements mainly include: the water spray time should be automatically sprayed within 1 s or less after starting; the continuous use time should not be less than 15 minutes; the flushing liquid flow rate of the self-contained eyewash should be at least 1.5 L/ min, the flushing fluid flow rate of the self-contained eye/face wash should be at least 11.4 L/min.
In particular, it should be pointed out that the emergency shower, eyewash and eyewash/facewash in the composite device should be able to be used at the same time, and should meet the requirements of various products when used alone or at the same time.
3.2.2 Safety technical requirements
Safety technical requirements mainly involve the design, installation, material and connection, and use of various products, such as:
- The method of design, manufacture and installation shall be such that it can be used once activated and does not require manual operation by the user again;
——The materials used shall not contaminate the flushing liquid, and shall comply with the relevant national standards for drinking water distribution;
- When the equipment is properly connected to the flushing fluid supply and the valve is closed, there shall be no visible leakage from the connection.
- It should be ensured that the flushing fluid can maintain a low flow rate to flush the eyes without causing damage to the eyes.
- Sprinklers should be protected from exposure to airborne contaminants. When implementing measures to protect the spray head, it should be ensured that the user does not need to remove the protective device when the eyewash is turned on.
- When flushing the eyes, there should be sufficient space for the user to hold the eyelids in the flushing fluid by hand.
——The rinse solution stored in the self-contained eyewash and eyewash/facewash should be protected from contamination by the atmosphere or other substances.
3.3 specifies the test methods for various products
3.3.1 General situation
The test methods in GB/T 38144.1-2019 mainly stipulate the specific and detailed operation procedures and specifications of various products such as test procedures, measuring instruments, measuring methods, and test results. In general, emergency showers, eyewashes, and eyewashes/eyewashes have some common test items and methods, as well as items and methods used independently, as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 General situation of test methods
Common items and methods
Personality Projects and Methods
Items and methods by each product
3.3.2 Common items and methods
The common test items and methods for emergency showers, eyewashes, and eyewashes/eyewashes are as follows:
(1) Connect the equipment to the supply source of flushing fluid, and the minimum water pressure should be 0.2 MPa.
(2) Use a flow meter or other method to measure the flow rate of the flushing fluid. When using a flow meter, connect the flow meter to the equipment, and the measurement unit of the flow meter is liters.
(3) When the valve is closed, visually check whether there is leakage at the connection part.
(4) Open the valve of the equipment, measure the opening time of the valve with a stopwatch or other methods, and visually check whether the valve remains open all the time.
(5) Measure the flow rate of flushing fluid. The test should last for 15 minutes, and record every 3 minutes, taking the minimum value.
(6) Measure the height of the nozzle, starting from the plane where the user is standing.
(7) Measure the distance to any obstacle and take the minimum value.
(8) Visually inspect whether the flushing fluid has turbidity, impurities or other visible objects, and whether there is odor or peculiar smell in the smell of water.
(9) Visually check whether the equipment can be used without the need for manual operation by the user once it is started.
It should be noted that, for the measurement of flushing fluid flow, GB/T 38144.1-2019 specifies specific and accurate test methods.
3.3.3 Personality items and methods
Specific test methods for emergency sprinklers include:
(1) Measure the diameter of the spray range at a distance of 1520 mm from the user’s standing plane.
(2) Visually inspect whether the dispersion form of the rinse solution is always consistent and fully dispersed.
(3) Measure the height of the valve drive, starting from the plane where the user stands.
Specific test methods for eyewashes, eyewashes/facewashes include:
(1) Visually check whether the sprinkler has a protective device. Turn on the eyewash and visually check whether the protective device does not need to be removed.
(2) Measure the eyewash water flow with a standard ruler.