According to the “Occupational Safety and Health Design Code for Petrochemical Enterprises”
4.4.2 A special safety room should be set up near the device control room. The room should be equipped with safety protective clothing, neutralization pool, personal washing facilities, eye washers, emergency medicines, etc.
4.4.3 A personal neutralization tank, accident shower and eyewash should be installed near the main fractionation tower feed pump, reflux pump and regeneration tower feed pump. Equipment tool neutralization pool should be set up in the device.
5.7.10 The phenol and acetone filling plant should be mechanically ventilated, and the phenol barrel filling point should be equipped with emergency showers and eye washers.
5.10.1 Equipment containing hydrogen fluoride materials should be concentrated in one area, and cofferdams and obvious safety signs should be set up around them. The area should be equipped with personal neutralization pools, equipment and tool neutralization pools, personal flushing facilities and eyewash stations.
5.10.5 A special safety room should be set up in the device, equipped with a neutralization pool, shower, eyewash station, safety protective clothing and first aid medicine kit.
“Safety and Hygiene Design Regulations for Chemical Enterprises” HG 20571-95
4.1.4 In operating environments with toxic hazards, necessary sanitary protection facilities such as showers and eye washers should be designed with a service radius of less than 15m. And according to the operation characteristics and protection requirements, accident cabinets, first aid kits and personal protective equipment are equipped.
4.6.5 Work areas with the risk of chemical burns should be equipped with necessary safety protection measures such as eye washers and showers, and first aid boxes should be set up in the installation area. Staff are equipped with necessary personal protective equipment.
“Safety and Hygiene Design Regulations for Chemical Powder Engineering” HG 20532-93
22.214.171.124 Where highly toxic materials are used, emergency facilities such as water showers and eyewash stations should be installed nearby.
There are many occupational harmful factors in chemical production, such as toxic chemicals, production dust, corrosive chemicals, harmful physical factors (high temperature, low temperature, etc.) or biological factors. Under certain conditions, occupational harmful factors directly act on the human body, damaging health and causing occupational diseases. Today’s safe work requires necessary emergency eyewash and shower equipment in toxic and hazardous workplaces. Article 23 of the “Law on the Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases” stipulates: “For toxic and harmful workplaces where acute occupational injuries may occur, the employer shall set up alarm devices, on-site first aid supplies, flushing equipment, emergency evacuation channels and necessary hazard relief areas. .” my country’s relevant design specifications have also made provisions, “Chemical Enterprise Safety and Health Design Regulations” (HG20571-95) Article 4.1.4 and 4.6.5, “Petrochemical Enterprise Occupational Safety and Health Design Regulations” “(SH 3047-93) Articles 1.10.5, 2.8.2 and 5.7.10, “Chemical Powder Engineering Safety and Hygiene Design Regulations” (HG20532-93) Article 5.5.1 .9 and Article 7.2.4 have made clear provisions requiring the installation of necessary safety and health protection facilities such as eye washers and showers.
Eye washers and showers are used as first aid equipment in the event of an accident. Their purpose is to provide water at the first opportunity to flush the eyes, face or body of workers who are sprayed by chemical substances, thereby reducing the possible harm caused by chemical substances. Whether the flushing is timely and thorough is directly related to the severity and prognosis of the injury. However, they only provide preliminary treatment for the eyes, face and body and cannot replace basic protective equipment such as protective glasses, splash masks, protective gloves, splash gowns, chemical protective clothing, nor the necessary safe disposal procedures, nor can they replace Replace medical treatment.
Regarding the specific settings of eye washers and showers, my country only stipulates in Article 4.1.4 of the “Safety and Hygiene Design Regulations for Chemical Enterprises” (HG20571-95) that their service radius is less than 15m. The American standard ANSI Z358.1-2004 is an internationally recognized eyewash and shower standard adopted by many countries. It is also used as the formulation of such standards in many countries and regions such as the Australian standard AS4775-2007 and Taiwan Province of China CNSl4251 T2048-1998. in accordance with. The European standard EN15154-1&2:2006 mainly specifies the installation, use, specification and testing of vertical body irrigators and vertical intraocular irrigators for laboratory use. The European standard EN 15154-3&4:2007 mainly specifies the installation, use, specification and testing of vertical body irrigators and vertical intraocular irrigators for laboratory use. Vertical body irrigators and non-vertical intraocular irrigators.
The following mainly discusses several aspects of emergency eyewash and shower equipment settings based on ANSI Z358.1-2004:
1 Hazard source identification
A detailed assessment of potential hazards and risk levels in the workplace is critical to the selection and installation of appropriate emergency equipment and will ensure that appropriate equipment is selected. Hazard source identification can refer to the hazardous characteristics of substances, health hazards, first aid measures and other items in the MSDS of chemical substances. Appendix F of the “Safety and Hygiene Design Regulations for Chemical Powder Engineering” (HG 20532-93) lists chemical powder media that can cause chemical burns to the human body; “Design Code for Occupational Safety and Health for Petrochemical Enterprises” (SH 3047-93) lists Several types of petrochemical production equipment must be equipped with rinsers and eye washers; the “Diagnostic Standards for Occupational Chemical Eye Burns” (GBZ54-2002) lists chemicals that can cause chemical eye burns, and these can be used as a reference. In addition, hazard sources are identified during the project’s safety pre-assessment and safety status assessment, which provides a basis for the confirmation of hazard sources.
Through identification, emergency eyewash stations and emergency showers need to be installed in production workshops, warehouses, tank farms, laboratories and open-air workplaces with toxic substance hazards, dust poison hazards, low temperature hazards, high temperature hazards and chemical burn hazards.
Equipment manufacturers of emergency eye washers and emergency showers can also assist in identifying hazard sources in the workplace, conduct risk assessments, and provide more operational suggestions for the installation of emergency eye washers and emergency showers.
2Selection of equipment
There are currently many types of eyewash and shower devices on the market, both domestically produced and imported. Imported products are basically designed and produced in accordance with the American standard ANSI Z358.1-2004, but their structures may not necessarily conform to Chinese ergonomics. Learn and choose improved products suitable for Chinese people. Eye washers and showers are divided into three types: eye wash, face wash, shower and their composite types. In addition, ANSIZ358.1-2004 stipulates that the drench hose can replace the eyewash or combined eyewash and facewash if it meets appropriate requirements, but it cannot replace the shower. As a useful supplement to eye washers and showers, flushing hoses are especially suitable for use in laboratories and other places. Portable eyewash stations are mainly suitable for workplaces without fixed water sources or where the workplace needs to be moved frequently.
The main materials of eye washers and showers include stainless steel, copper, and engineering plastics, which should be selected according to different workplaces. Imported products are generally made of ABS engineering plastics; domestic eyewash and shower manufacturers basically use 304 stainless steel, which meets drinking water standards and can resist corrosion by general chemical substances. However, in strong corrosive environments such as strong acids such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, strong bases such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, chloride, and fluoride, ordinary stainless steel is difficult to resist. This requires the use of imported stainless steel or brass materials for ABS immersion. Plastic eyewash or stainless steel eyewash with high performance and corrosion resistance. For cold areas in the north, you should also consider the situation where the outlet water temperature is very low or even freezes in winter. Manual emptying or foot emptying and more advanced automatic emptying eyewash can be used to prevent the eyewash water outlet pipe from freezing; Electric heating or electric heating equipment can also be used to make the outlet water temperature meet the appropriate temperature requirements.
4 Outlet water temperature, water quality, water pressure and water flow speed
4.1 Outlet water temperature
ANSI Z358.1-2004 stipulates that the outlet water temperature of eye washers and showers should be “mild”, and further stipulates that it should be between 60 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit (156.C-37.8.C) to ensure The immediate outlet water temperature is within this temperature range and lasts for more than 15 minutes. EN 15154-1:2006 points out that outlet water temperatures exceeding 37°C are proven to be harmful to the eyes and may cause cross-infection of chemicals with the eyes and skin, causing further damage. If the outlet water temperature is too low, the user may be unable to stand under the shower equipment, causing greater injury. 15. C is appropriate as the lower limit of warm water without causing the user’s body temperature to drop.
In order to make the outlet water temperature reach the mild requirement, the simplest method is to divide the water supply into cold water and hot water systems, and then install a mixing valve to make the mixed water temperature reach the normal requirement. Electric heating devices are usually used to provide hot water, but the use of electric heating equipment involves a heating process and cannot immediately provide the mild water source required for emergency flushing. The electric heating system can be used to heat and antifreeze the initial water outlet of the pipeline system.
4.2 Water quality
ANSI Z358.1-2004 and EN 15154-1&2:2006 both require that the water source used for eyewash and shower devices should be drinking water or equivalent to drinking water quality. In my country’s current design, clean water sources such as tap water can be used, and are generally directly connected to the water supply pipe network, which can meet the demand for large amounts of water sources during emergency use. The water supply pipelines of eye washers and showers should be separated from other pipelines to avoid contamination.
The flushing fluid is not limited to clean water. A suitable flushing fluid should be selected based on the characteristics of the chemical. Commonly used flushing solutions include clean water, physiological saline, and neutralizing solutions, such as 5% sodium bicarbonate solution, 3% boric acid solution, 0.1% glacial acetic acid, etc. According to the acidity and alkalinity of the chemical substance, neutralizing solution, clean water or physiological saline can be used to rinse for 15rain.
above. Materials that are flammable when exposed to moisture, such as potassium metal (sodium), limestone, calcium carbide, potassium hydride, etc., cannot be washed with a small amount of water, but should be washed with a large amount of water. For those chemicals that, in addition to causing local tissue damage, can also absorb chemicals that cause systemic poisoning and organ damage, special treatment methods should be adopted. For example: hydrofluoric acid burns. Mere flushing cannot block the penetration of fluoride ions into deep tissues. , negative ions can depolarize nerves and cause severe local pain. Only subcutaneous injection of 10% calcium gluconate in the injured area can neutralize fluoride ions and relieve pain.
5 Installation requirements
The service radius of eye washers and showers should be within 15m, ensuring that the time it takes users to reach the equipment in a straight line does not exceed 10 seconds. The equipment must have a working position in at least three directions, with no obstacles around it, so that it can be used quickly. The center point of the eyewash equipment is 40.6em (16 inches) from any obstruction. There should be no electrical switches around the eyewash station to prevent accidents.
All eyewash and shower areas must maintain a channel at least 1m wide. At the same time, maintain an open area with a diameter of no less than 1.2m with the sprinkler head as the center, and the area must be painted in a safe color.
There should be eye-catching signs around eyewash stations and shower equipment. The signs should preferably be bilingual in Chinese and English and have pictorial illustrations to clearly inform the personnel at the work site of the location and purpose of the eyewash station and shower equipment. Luminous indicator signs can be installed on the equipment, and explosion-proof sound and light alarms and explosion-proof lights can also be installed to remind other personnel to come for rescue when the equipment is in use.
Each nozzle of the eyewash station should have a dust cover. The valve of the eyewash station should be easy to operate and the opening time should not exceed 1 second. The valve should have anti-corrosion function. The nozzle of the eyewash station should be equipped with a filter to prevent debris in the water from causing damage to human eyes.
6 Equipment maintenance, overhaul and training
If eye washers and shower equipment are not used for a long time, impurities may be generated in the water pipes. If you use water containing impurities to rinse your eyes, it will easily cause eye inflammation and aggravate eye damage; if it is used to rinse skin damage caused by chemical burns, it will also Infection is prone to occur, with serious consequences. Therefore, eyewash and shower equipment should be started at least once a week to see if they are functioning properly. This frequency reduces the chance of sediment accumulation and the growth of microbial hazards in stagnant water lines. For mobile eyewash units (such as portable eyewash units, portable pressure eyewash units), it is necessary to arrange for a dedicated person to check whether the reserved water source is sufficient every day.
At the same time, it is recommended that the reserved water source be changed once a day to ensure water quality. Eyewash and shower equipment need to be inspected once a year to see if the equipment is in good condition.
For workers who are exposed to hazardous working environments for a long time, equipment suppliers should provide more technical guidance and methods for the correct use of eyewash and shower equipment. Workers must be aware of the location of emergency equipment, especially if there are changes to emergency equipment or layout. Operators should be retrained regularly and employees should be reminded that the setting of emergency equipment cannot replace the use of basic personal protective equipment, such as protective glasses, anti-splash masks, protective gloves, anti-splash gowns, and chemical protective suits. For the maintenance and repair of eyewash and shower equipment, manufacturers should provide corresponding technical training.
7 other aspects
If a worker suffers severe eye burns and cannot see the route clearly, or is suddenly chemically poisoned and unable to walk independently, it will be difficult to reach the emergency eyewash equipment. If the surrounding personnel fail to detect it in time, the rescue time will inevitably be delayed. Therefore, regular inspections should be strengthened in hazardous workplaces, and alarm systems or video surveillance systems should be installed on-site to enable timely detection of serious eye burns, severe poisoning and other accidents, so that rescue actions can be taken as quickly as possible.
In addition, it is not enough to just set up emergency eyewash and shower devices. Enterprises should also set up other emergency rescue equipment such as gas masks, suction machines, atomized inhalers, oxygen respirators, first aid drugs, etc., in conjunction with eye washers and shower devices. With the use of.
Considering that the construction of professional treatment institutions and professional treatment teams for acute chemical poisoning in most areas of our country is still very imperfect. In addition to large petrochemical companies, there are also only a few chemical companies with corporate hospitals or medical clinics. Therefore, in chemical companies It is particularly necessary to install emergency rescue equipment such as eyewash stations and showers to gain “golden time” for emergency treatment. Enterprises should formulate complete emergency rescue plans, clarify job responsibilities, establish an internal emergency rescue team, and conduct regular professional knowledge learning, skills training and emergency drills. Enterprises should take the initiative to establish good information channels with hospitals and other medical and health institutions so that they can receive treatment as quickly as possible in emergencies.